Half the stocks in this area are being fished at unsustainable levels: Whitehead's round herring has not yet reached fully fished but Cunene horse mackerel is overfished. For instance, in spite of 7 km thick basalt, Gunnbjorn Field in East Greenland is the highest point on the island, elevated enough that it exposes older Mesozoic sedimentary rocks at its base, similar to old lava fields above sedimentary rocks in the uplifted Hebrides of western Scotland. Ceci pourrait notamment expliquer la forte activité cyclonique dans l'Ouest du Pacifique et surtout sur l'Atlantique. December average water temperature in Atlantic City is 9.1°C/48.4°F, the minimum temperature is 4.4°C/39.9°F, and the maximum is 13.6°C/56.5°F. [25], The MAR rises 2–3 km (1.2–1.9 mi) above the surrounding ocean floor and its rift valley is the divergent boundary between the North American and Eurasian plates in the North Atlantic and the South American and African plates in the South Atlantic. [42], The Sargasso Sea in the western North Atlantic can be defined as the area where two species of Sargassum (S. fluitans and natans) float, an area 4,000 km (2,500 mi) wide and encircled by the Gulf Stream, North Atlantic Drift, and North Equatorial Current. The 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border. For other uses, see, Extent of the Atlantic Ocean according to the 2002 IHO definition, excluding, For complete lists of marginal seas and borders of the Atlantic, see, For the extent of the Southern Ocean, see, For a list of fracture zones in the Atlantic, see, Opening of the Central Atlantic 200-170 Ma, Sebastian A. Gerlach "Marine Pollution", Springer, Berlin (1975), List of bordering countries (not drainage basin), Landscape of the Pico Island Vineyard Culture, Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories, List of notable crossings of the Atlantic Ocean, collapse of the Atlantic northwest cod fishery, List of countries and territories bordering the Atlantic Ocean, "An inside look at the first solo trip to the deepest point of the Atlantic", "Ἀτλαντίς, DGE Diccionario Griego-Español", "World Map / World Atlas / Atlas of the World Including Geography Facts and Flags - WorldAtlas.com", World Heritage Centre: Mid-Atlantic Ridge, The Geological Society: Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Marchal, Waelbroeck & Colin de Verdière 2016, "Do Baby Eels Use Magnetic Maps to Hitch a Ride on the Gulf Stream? Theoliitic dikes, sills, and lava flows from the CAMP eruption at 200 Ma have been found in West Africa, eastern North America, and northern South America. The South Atlantic Central Water originates in this gyre, while Antarctic Intermediate Water originates in the upper layers of the circumpolar region, near the Drake Passage and the Falkland Islands. "[73] Others later proposed a "three-wave" migration over the Bering Land Bridge. [43] The origin of the Sargasso fauna and flora remained enigmatic for centuries. 31% of stocks are overfished in the North-west Atlantic. [83], The Atlantic has contributed significantly to the development and economy of surrounding countries. The eastern water is saltier because of its proximity to Mediterranean Water. Maximum salinity values occur at about 25° north and south, in subtropical regions with low rainfall and high evaporation. The south tides in the Atlantic Ocean are semi-diurnal; that is, two high tides occur during every 24 lunar hours. [93] If the AMO were responsible for SST variability, the AMOC would have increased in strength, which is apparently not the case. Prévisions des conditions de baignade : température de l'eau, indice UV et état de la mer. Our sailing weather forecasts are derived using data from the most trusted and reliable weather models available. [68] During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) 20,000 years ago humans had to abandon their initial settlements along the European North Atlantic coast and retreat to the Mediterranean. 代尔堡, Map showing location of Fort Lauderdale (26.122310, -80.143380). [64], Humans evolved in Africa; first by diverging from other apes around 7 mya; then developing stone tools around 2.6 mya; to finally evolve as modern humans around 100 kya. The population of a number of deep-sea fishes also collapsed in the process, including American plaice, redfish, and Greenland halibut, together with flounder and grenadier. 211):[7] Atlantikôi pelágei (Greek: Ἀτλαντικῷ πελάγει; English: 'the Atlantic sea'; etym. [1] Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km (69,510 mi) compared to 135,663 km (84,297 mi) for the Pacific. The ice season is longer in the polar regions, but there is little shipping in those areas. The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, and reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State.[14][15][16]. Ajouter aux raccourcis. The biggest culprits are rivers and with them many agriculture fertilizer chemicals as well as livestock and human waste. [48], The Atlantic Ocean is underlain mostly by dense mafic oceanic crust made up of basalt and gabbro and overlain by fine clay, silt and siliceous ooze on the abyssal plain. The earliest exploitation, however, took place on the now submerged shelves, and most settlements now excavated were then located several kilometers from these shelves. Rifting in the central segment, however, coincided with the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (also known as the Cretaceous quiet period), a 40 Ma period without magnetic reversals, which makes it difficult to date sea-floor spreading in this segment. [1][18], Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 (41,100,000 sq mi) or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 (74,471,500 cu mi) or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. While nine of these have collectively been nominated a World Heritage Site for their geological value, four of them are considered of "Outstanding Universal Value" based on their cultural and natural criteria: Þingvellir, Iceland; Landscape of the Pico Island Vineyard Culture, Portugal; Gough and Inaccessible Islands, United Kingdom; and Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Fernando de Noronha and Atol das Rocas Reserves, Brazil. Since man-made substances were introduced into the environment, the path of the NADW can be traced throughout its course by measuring tritium and radiocarbon from nuclear weapon tests in the 1960s and CFCs. The measurements for the water temperature in Fort Lauderdale, Florida are provided by the daily satellite readings provided by the NOAA. Its eastern portion includes eddying branches of the North Atlantic Current which transport warm, saline waters from the subtropics to the north-eastern Atlantic. [31] The exploration of the MAR in the 1950s led to the general acceptance of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics. The MAR produces basaltic volcanoes in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, and pillow lava on the ocean floor. A small population of modern humans — probably fewer than a thousand reproducing individuals — survived glacial maxima by exploring the high diversity offered by these Palaeo-Agulhas plains. On the African east coast the small cyclonic Angola Gyre lies embedded in the large subtropical gyre. Climatic zones vary with latitude; the warmest zones stretch across the Atlantic north of the equator. The Gulf Stream also keeps extreme temperatures from occurring on the Florida Peninsula. [35], There are five intermediate waters: four low-salinity waters formed at subpolar latitudes and one high-salinity formed through evaporation. [95], Ocean between Europe, Africa and the Americas, "Atlantic", "North Atlantic", "South Atlantic", and "Atlantic Basin" redirect here. During the LGM the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of northern North America while Beringia connected Siberia to Alaska. [10] On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world; in contrast to the enclosed seas well known to the Greeks: the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Le Gulf Stream (et sa prolongation, la dérive d'Atlantique nord) apportent de l'eau chaude et salée au nord-est de l'Atlantique, en chauffant l'Europe de l'ouest. Referred to as "Newfoundland Currency" this discovery yielded some 200 million tons of fish over five centuries. [89], Marine debris, which is also known as marine litter, describes human-created waste floating in a body of water. In general, winds transport moisture and air over land areas. The opening of the Northern Atlantic closely followed the margins of its predecessor, the Iapetus Ocean, and spread from the Central Atlantic in six stages: Iberia–Newfoundland, Porcupine–North America, Eurasia–Greenland, Eurasia–North America. The most important species, the Argentine shortfin squid, which reached half a million tons in 2013 or half the peak value, is considered fully fished to overfished. [43], Other species endemic to the Sargasso Sea include the sargassum fish, a predator with algae-like appendages which hovers motionless among the Sargassum. [87], In the Eastern Central Atlantic small pelagic fishes constitute about 50% of landings with sardine reaching 0.6–1.0 million tons per year. The continental margins and continental shelf mark lower density, but greater thickness felsic continental rock that often much older than that of the seafloor. [24], Most of the MAR runs under water but where it reaches the surfaces it has produced volcanic islands. [86], In the Western Central Atlantic, catches have been decreasing since 2000 and reached 1.3 million tons in 2013. [41] Iceland began to form 62 million years ago due to a particularly concentrated mantle plume. Selon les chercheurs, ces résultats montrent que le réchauffement récent de la surface de l’océan Atlantique est sans précédent. Coarse sand, boulders, and rocks were transported into some areas, such as off the coast of Nova Scotia or the Gulf of Maine during the Pleistocene ice ages. [6], On average, the Atlantic is the saltiest major ocean; surface water salinity in the open ocean ranges from 33 to 37 parts per thousand (3.3–3.7%) by mass and varies with latitude and season. [46], Climate is influenced by the temperatures of the surface waters and water currents as well as winds. [2][3] It covers approximately 20 percent of Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. England, France, and the Dutch Republic enviously watched the Spanish and Portuguese wealth grow and allied themselves with pirates such as Henry Mainwaring and Alexandre Exquemelin. [77] [9] In these uses, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who later appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and also lent his name to modern atlases. [52] [91], North Atlantic hurricane activity has increased over past decades because of increased sea surface temperature (SST) at tropical latitudes, changes that can be attributed to either the natural Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) or to anthropogenic climate change. The earliest evidence for the complex behavior associated with this behavioral modernity has been found in the Greater Cape Floristic Region (GCFR) along the coast of South Africa. The temperatures given are the sea surface temperature (SST) which is most relevant to recreational users. Météo des plages de l'océan Atlantique La façade Atlantique dispose en majorité de grandes plages de sable fin, souvent bien animées tout au long de l'année. [30], The remainder of the ridge was discovered in the 1920s by the German Meteor expedition using echo-sounding equipment. [10] The Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The Rockall Trough opened between 105 and 84 million years ago although along the rift failed along with one leading into the Bay of Biscay. Off South Africa and Namibia deep-water hake and shallow-water Cape hake have recovered to sustainable levels since regulations were introduced in 2006 and the states of Southern African pilchard and anchovy have improved to fully fished in 2013. This final stage, nevertheless, coincided with or resulted in the end of continental extension in Africa. Selon de récentes données, l'Océan Atlantique aurait enregistré sa plus importante hausse de température au cours de cette dernière décennie. The MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the other. [36] Some of these canyons extend along the continental rises and farther into the abyssal plains as deep-sea channels.[25]. For example, the Gulf Stream helps moderate winter temperatures along the coastline of southeastern North America, keeping it warmer in winter along the coast than inland areas. [79], Christopher Columbus reached the Americas in 1492 under Spanish flag. A third of this water becomes part of the deep portion of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). [6], In the North Atlantic, surface circulation is dominated by three inter-connected currents: the Gulf Stream which flows north-east from the North American coast at Cape Hatteras; the North Atlantic Current, a branch of the Gulf Stream which flows northward from the Grand Banks; and the Subpolar Front, an extension of the North Atlantic Current, a wide, vaguely defined region separating the subtropical gyre from the subpolar gyre. [75] Furthermore, colonisation models based on mtDNA, yDNA, and atDNA data respectively support neither the "blitzkrieg" nor the "three-wave" hypotheses but they also deliver mutually ambiguous results. Because of the ocean's great capacity to store and release heat, maritime climates are more moderate and have less extreme seasonal variations than inland climates. Icebergs are common from early February to the end of July across the shipping lanes near the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. [6] Arctic cod reached its lowest levels in the 1960s–1980s but is now recovered. Currently, there is no cost-effective way to mine or extract gold from the ocean to make a profit. [32] The deep ocean floor is thought to be fairly flat with occasional deeps, abyssal plains, trenches, seamounts, basins, plateaus, canyons, and some guyots. [59][60] This magnificent fit, however, has since then proven problematic and later reconstructions have introduced various deformation zones along the shorelines to accommodate the northward-propagating break-up. Comment la température de surface de l’Atlantique nord a-t-elle fluctué au cours des 3000 dernières années ? The coldest zones are in high latitudes, with the coldest regions corresponding to the areas covered by sea ice. [71], The same development can be seen in Europe. Sa surface, sans les mers bordières, est de l'ordre de 82 millions de ki Prévisions météo plage de Biarritz heure par heure, demain et à 15 jours. [81][82], From Columbus to the Industrial Revolution Trans-Atlantic trade, including colonialism and slavery, became crucial for Western Europe. [86], In the North-East Atlantic total catches decreased between the mid-1970s and the 1990s and reached 8.7 million tons in 2013. La figure 4.3 représente la distribution moyenne de la température sur une coupe de l'océan Atlantique Ouest.Cette figure illustre bien le confinement des températures élevées dans la partie supérieure de l'océan. In La Riera Cave (23–13 kya) in Asturias, Spain, only some 26,600 molluscs were deposited over 10 kya. The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953,[17] but some of these definitions have been revised since then and some are not used by various authorities, institutions, and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Almost half of the stocks are fished at biologically unsustainable levels. Fossils of similar fishes have been found in fossil bays of the former Tethys Ocean, in what is now the Carpathian region, that were similar to the Sargasso Sea. Iceland was initially settled 865–930 CE following a warm period when winter temperatures hovered around 2 °C (36 °F) which made farming favorable at high latitudes. Atlantic Ocean, body of salt water covering about one-fifth of Earth’s surface and separating the continents of Europe and Africa to the east from those of North and South America to the west. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas vary. 34–30 Ma a deeper seaway developed, followed by an Eocene–Oligocene climatic deterioration and the growth of the Antarctic ice sheet. This group of people not only expanded over the whole of Africa, but also started to disperse out of Africa into Asia, Europe, and Australasia around 65,000 years ago and quickly replaced the archaic humans in these regions. For European countries with direct access to the Atlantic (including Britain, France, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain) 1500–1800 was a period of sustained growth during which these countries grew richer than those in Eastern Europe and Asia. The southern subtropical gyre is partly masked by a wind-induced Ekman layer. In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in later maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. Its name, derived from Greek mythology, means the ‘Sea of Atlas.’ It is second in size to the Pacific Ocean. Colonialism evolved as part of the Trans-Atlantic trade, but this trade also strengthened the position of merchant groups at the expense of monarchs. The GCFR is delimited to the north by the Cape Fold Belt and the limited space south of it resulted in the development of social networks out of which complex Stone Age technologies emerged. The excess of oxygen-depleting chemicals leads to hypoxia and the creation of a dead zone. [83], Trans-Atlantic trade also resulted in increasing urbanization: in European countries facing the Atlantic, urbanization grew from 8% in 1300, 10.1% in 1500, to 24.5% in 1850; in other European countries from 10% in 1300, 11.4% in 1500, to 17% in 1850. [39] [50], The break-up of Pangaea began in the Central Atlantic, between North America and Northwest Africa, where rift basins opened during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. Selon une étude publiée par l'Université de Londres, une augmentation de la température à la surface de l'océan de l'ordre de 0,5°C a élevé de 40% le nombre d'ouragans dans l'océan Atlantique entre 1996 et 2005. [86], In the South-East Atlantic catches have decreased from 3.3 million tons in the early 1970s to 1.3 million tons in 2013. Before and during deliveries, ocean races, regattas, cruises, and all other types of offshore passages, we have your whole route covered. [94], The ocean mixed layer plays an important role in heat storage over seasonal and decadal time-scales, whereas deeper layers are affected over millennia and have a heat capacity about 50 times that of the mixed layer. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean. The warmest Pornichet sea water temperatures in the middle of August require something like a … Pornichet sea water temperatures peak in the range 18 to 22°C (64 to 72°F) on around the 17th of August and are at their minimum on about the 1st of March, in the range 10 to 11°C (50 to 52°F). Furthermore, it is clear from statistical analyses of annual tropical cyclones that these changes do not display multidecadal cyclicity. ", "Why doesn't the South Atlantic Ocean experience tropical cyclones? It runs from 87°N or 300 km (190 mi) south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 54°S. It covers approximately 20 percent of Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. [11] In contrast, the term "Atlantic" originally referred specifically to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast. The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. (Complete List of Average Temperatures) Use the near real-time water temperature data with discretion, because they may contain errors. Mises à … Meanwhile, the Scotia Arc and Caribbean Plate in the western Atlantic Basin are eastward-propagating subduction systems that might, together with the Gibraltar system, represent the beginning of the closure of the Atlantic Ocean and the final stage of the Atlantic Wilson cycle. Get the forecast for today, tonight & tomorrow's weather for Atlantique, NY. Large variations in the subpolar gyre on a decade-century scale, associated with the North Atlantic oscillation, are especially pronounced in Labrador Sea Water, the upper layers of the MOC. For instance, on the North American side of the ocean, large carbonate deposits formed in warm shallow waters such as Florida and the Bahamas, while coarse river outwash sands and silt are common in shallow shelf areas like the Georges Bank. [6], The Gulf Stream and its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift is thought to have at least some influence on climate. In contrast, 8–7 kya-old shell middens in Portugal, Denmark, and Brazil generated thousands of tons of debris and artefacts. Water Temperature Table of the Central Atlantic Coast (Google Maps-based Web page) Various estimates date the propagation of sea-floor spreading in this segment to the period 120–96 Ma. In 1500, in his voyage to India following Vasco da Gama, Pedro Alvares Cabral reached Brazil, taken by the currents of the South Atlantic Gyre. Municipal pollution comes from the eastern United States, southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; and industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in the Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea. Arctic Intermediate Water, flows from north to become the source for North Atlantic Deep Water south of the Greenland-Scotland sill. [33], The Atlantic Ocean consists of four major, upper water masses with distinct temperature and salinity. La température de l'océan Atlantique, sur les côtes canadiennes, continue de grimper, selon la plus récente étude sur les conditions océanographiques de Pêches et Océans Canada. The Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by North and South America. The USS Stewart used a Navy Sonic Depth Finder to draw a continuous map across the bed of the Atlantic. This heat uptake provides a time-lag for climate change but it also results in thermal expansion of the oceans which contributes to sea level rise. Il sépare l'Eurafrique de l'Amérique et du Groenland, et il est né de cassures d'âge secondaire, qui n'ont cessé de s'élargir depuis. A new model", "History of NOAA Ocean Exploration: Timeline", "The human genetic history of the Americas: the final frontier", "Two millennia of North Atlantic seasonality and implications for Norse colonies", "Global continental and ocean basin reconstructions since 200Ma", "Tracing the flow of North Atlantic Deep Water using chlorofluorocarbons", "On the water masses and mean circulation of the South Atlantic Ocean", "A new scheme for the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean and the dissection of an Aptian salt basin", "The North Atlantic subpolar gyre in four high-resolution models", "Mapping of the Puerto Rico Trench, the Deepest Part of the Atlantic, is Nearing Completion", "The Red Atlantic: American Indigenes and the Making of the Modern World, 1000–1927", "Changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity in a warming environment", "Map of Atlantic Coast of North America from the Chesapeake Bay to Florida", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Atlantic_Ocean&oldid=994576088, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia introduction cleanup from December 2020, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from December 2020, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles using infobox body of water without pushpin map, Articles using infobox body of water without image bathymetry, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles to be expanded from December 2020, Articles with dead external links from June 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from May 2019, Articles with dead external links from July 2017, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 111,866 km (69,510 mi) including marginal seas, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 12:50. Although the lowest salinity values are just north of the equator (because of heavy tropical rainfall), in general, the lowest values are in the high latitudes and along coasts where large rivers enter. [88], Marine pollution is a generic term for the entry into the ocean of potentially hazardous chemicals or particles. [19][20], The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). A 2005 report indicated that the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) slowed down by 30% between 1957 and 2004. The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 km2 (41,100,000 sq mi). The third group, "continuously increasing trend since 1950", is only found in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific. Hi/Low, RealFeel®, precip, radar, & everything you need to be ready for the day, commute, and weekend! The swimming … The reduced quantities of shells in the lower levels can represent the few shells that were exported inland.[72]. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. [92] Therefore, these changes in SST must be caused by human activities. [12] During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was also known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean. Other hunter-gatherers followed in waves interrupted by large-scale hazards such as the Laacher See volcanic eruption, the inundation of Doggerland (now the North Sea), and the formation of the Baltic Sea. Spreading began opening the Labrador Sea around 61 million years ago, continuing until 36 million years ago. 21st-century global warming will probably result in an equilibrium sea-level rise five times greater than today, whilst melting of glaciers, including that of the Greenland ice-sheet, expected to have virtually no effect during the 21st century, will probably result in a sea-level rise of 3–6 m over a millennium. [6], Every winter, the Icelandic Low produces frequent storms. The Atlantic Subarctic Upper Water in the northernmost North Atlantic is the source for Subarctic Intermediate Water and North Atlantic Intermediate Water. 'Sea of Atlantis') and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC (Hdt. Accédez à la page que vous souhaitez ajouter à vos favoris, ouvrez le menu des raccourcis météo et cliquez sur le bouton « Ajouter aux raccourcis »; Le nom de la page sera affiché dans la fenêtre « Ajouter cette page ». The sea snail perlemoen abalone is targeted by illegal fishing and remain overfished. It covered an area of 1.2×106 to 1.6×106 km2 (4.6×105 to 6.2×105 sq mi) in Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay and 0.8×105 km2 (3.1×104 sq mi) in Africa. Groupers and snappers are overfished and northern brown shrimp and American cupped oyster are considered fully fished approaching overfished. [57] The opening of the North Atlantic caused significant uplift of continental crust along the coast. Following these explorations, Spain and Portugal quickly conquered and colonized large territories in the New World and forced the Amerindian population into slavery in order to explore the vast quantities of silver and gold they found. In 1922 a historic moment in cartography and oceanography occurred. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. [40], The South Atlantic is dominated by the anti-cyclonic southern subtropical gyre. [6], From October to June the surface is usually covered with sea ice in the Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and Baltic Sea. [78] [24], The MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two-halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. Marine organisms on both sides of the isthmus became isolated and either diverged or went extinct. One from 62 to 58 million years ago predates the separation of Greenland from northern Europe while the second from 56 to 52 million years ago happened as the separation occurred. [6], The high surface salinity in the Atlantic, on which the Atlantic thermohaline circulation is dependent, is maintained by two processes: the Agulhas Leakage/Rings, which brings salty Indian Ocean waters into the South Atlantic, and the "Atmospheric Bridge", which evaporates subtropical Atlantic waters and exports it to the Pacific. They could explore the convoys leaving the Americas because prevailing winds and currents made the transport of heavy metals slow and predictable. [24], Continental shelves in the Atlantic are wide off Newfoundland, southernmost South America, and north-eastern Europe. [53], The formation of the Central American Isthmus closed the Central American Seaway at the end of the Pliocene 2.8 Ma ago. These two intermediate waters have different salinity in the western and eastern basins. [62], In the Falkland segment rifting began with dextral movements between the Patagonia and Colorado sub-plates between the Early Jurassic (190 Ma) and the Early Cretaceous (126.7 Ma). The oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC (Sch. Growth was more rapid in non-absolutist countries, such as Britain and the Netherlands, and more limited in absolutist monarchies, such as Portugal, Spain, and France, where profit mostly or exclusively benefited the monarchy and its allies.